Arduino Leonardo 義大利原廠進口

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Arduino Leonardo 義大利原廠進口

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Arduino Leonardo ATmega32u4 義大利原廠進口

Arduino Leonardo是一款基於ATmega32u4( 下載 )的微控制器板。它有20個數字輸入/輸出引腳(其中7個可用作PWM輸出,12個可用作模擬輸入)、1個16 MHz晶體振盪器、1個micro USB連接、1個電源插座、1個ICSP頭和1個複位按鈕。它包含了支持微控制器所需的一切;只需通過USB電纜將其連至計算機或者通過AC-DC適配器或電池為其供電即可開始。

Leonardo與先前的所有電路板都不同,因為ATmega32u4具有內置式USB通信,從而無需二級處理器。這樣,除了虛擬(CDC)串行/通信端口,Leonardo還可以充當計算機的鼠標和鍵盤。它對電路板的性能也有影響。

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Arduino Leonardo with Headers ATmega32u4 義大利原廠進口

Arduino Leonardo 是基於Atmel ATmega32u4的微控制板,具有20組數位輸出/入腳位,以及7組類比腳位,可以用來控制周邊、監測感應器數值,並透過USB和運行Windows/Mac OSX/Linux的個人電腦連接;甚至能夠透過模擬方式作為HID(鍵盤、滑鼠或其他周邊)與電腦互動。

Arduino Leonardo Front

Arduino Leonardo 和Uno相比,Leonardo擁有更多的擴充腳位,可以同時控制更多的周邊,進行更複雜的電路專案。另外在電路設計上亦有差異,由於Uno擁有獨立晶片處理序列埠連串接,因此透過電腦重置Uno時,並不會中斷其USB或序列埠連線;另一方面由於Leonardo的序列埠串接乃透過主處理器以虛擬方式運作,因此編輯程式重置處理器時,Leonardo與電腦的連接將會被中斷,這點請特別注意。

義大利原廠說明 http://www.arduino.org/products/boards/arduino-leonardo

Arduino UNO 與 Leonardo 的差異 http://yehnan.blogspot.tw/2013/09/arduinoleonardouno.html

電源規格

Arduino Leonardo可通過micro USB連接或者外部電源供電。自動選擇電源。

外部(非USB)電源可以是AC-DC適配器(壁式),也可以是電池。通過將2.1mm中心正極插頭插入電路板的電源插座即可連接適配器。電池的引線可插入電源連接器的Gnd和Vin排針。

電路板可由6~20V外部電源供電。然而,如果電源電壓低於7V,那麼5V引腳可能會提供低於5V的電壓,電路板也許會不穩定。如果電源電壓超過12V,穩壓器可能會過熱,從而損壞電路板。電壓範圍建議為7~12V。

電源引腳如下:

  • VIN .使用外部電源時Arduino板的輸入電壓(與通過USB連接或其它穩壓電源提供的5V電壓相對)。可以通過該引腳提供電壓,或者如果通過電源插座提供電壓,則可通過該引腳使用它。
  • 5V .穩壓電源用於為電路板上的微控制器和其他元件供電。可以通過板載穩壓器由VIN供電,也可以由USB或其他穩壓5V電源供電。
  • 3V3 .板載穩壓器產生的3.3V電源。最大電流消耗為50 mA。
  • GND .接地引腳。
  • IOREF .電路板的I/O引腳的工作電壓(即電路板的VCC)。在Leonardo上,該值為5V。

規格說明

微處理器 ATmega32u4
電壓準位 5V
輸入電壓 (建議) 7-12V
I/O 腳位 20 (7組PWM / 12組類比)
每引腳 I/O DC 電流 40 mA
3.3V 引腳DC電流 50 mA
Flash 記憶體 32 KB (ATmega32u4) 4KB為Bootloader空間
SRAM 2.5 KB (ATmega32u4)
EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega32u4)
時脈 16 MHz

The Arduino Leonardo is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega32u4 (datasheet). It has 20 digital input/output pins (of which 7 can be used as PWM outputs and 12 as analog inputs), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a micro USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

The Leonardo differs from all preceding boards in that the ATmega32u4 has built-in USB communication, eliminating the need for a secondary processor. This allows the Leonardo to appear to a connected computer as a mouse and keyboard, in addition to a virtual (CDC) serial / COM port. It also has other implications for the behaviour of the board.

The Arduino Leonardo can be powered via the micro USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically.

External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board’s power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector.

The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.

The power pins are as follows:

  • VIN. The input voltage to the Arduino board when it’s using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin.
  • 5V. The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other components on the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board regulator, or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply.
  • 3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA.
  • GND. Ground pins.
  • IOREF. The voltage at which the i/o pins of the board are operating (i.e. VCC for the board). This is 5V on the Leonardo.
Memory
The ATmega32u4 has 32 KB (with 4 KB used for the bootloader). It also has 2.5 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library).
Input and Output
Each of the 20 digital i/o pins on the Leonardo can be used as an input or output, using pinMode(), digitalWrite(), and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized functions:

  • Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data using the ATmega32U4 hardware serial capability. Note that on the Leonardo, the Serial class refers to USB (CDC) communication; for TTL serial on pins 0 and 1, use the Serial1 class.
  • TWI: 2 (SDA) and 3 (SCL). Support TWI communication using the Wire library.
  • External Interrupts: 3 (interrupt 0), 2 (interrupt 1), 0 (interrupt 2), 1 (interrupt 3) and 7 (interrupt 4). These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See the attachInterrupt() function for details.
  • PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, and 13. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function.
  • SPI: on the ICSP header. These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. Note that the SPI pins are not connected to any of the digital I/O pins as they are on the Uno, They are only available on the ICSP connector. This means that if you have a shield that uses SPI, but does NOT have a 6-pin ICSP connector that connects to the Leonardo’s 6-pin ICSP header, the shield will not work.
  • LED: 13. There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it’s off.
  • Analog Inputs: A0-A5, A6 – A11 (on digital pins 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12). The Leonardo has 12 analog inputs, labeled A0 through A11, all of which can also be used as digital i/o. Pins A0-A5 appear in the same locations as on the Uno; inputs A6-A11 are on digital i/o pins 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 respectively. Each analog input provides 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default the analog inputs measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the analogReference() function.

There are a couple of other pins on the board:

  • AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analogReference().
  • Reset. Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board.
Communication
The Leonardo has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega32U4 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). The 32U4 also allows for serial (CDC) communication over USB and appears as a virtual com port to software on the computer. The chip also acts as a full speed USB 2.0 device, using standard USB COM drivers. On Windows, a .inf file is required. The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1).

A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the Leonardo’s digital pins.

The ATmega32U4 also supports I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus. For SPI communication, use the SPI library.

The Leonardo appears as a generic keyboard and mouse, and can be programmed to control these input devices using the Keyboard and Mouse classes.

Programming
The Leonardo can be programmed with the Arduino software (download). Select “Arduino Leonardo from the Tools > Board menu (according to the microcontroller on your board). For details, see the reference and tutorials.

The ATmega32U4 on the Arduino Leonardo comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. It communicates using the AVR109 protocol.

You can also bypass the bootloader and program the microcontroller through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header using Arduino ISP or similar.

Automatic (Software) Reset
Rather than requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload, the Leonardo is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a connected computer. The reset is triggered when the Leonardo’s virtual (CDC) serial / COM port is opened at 1200 baud and then closed. When this happens, the processor will reset, breaking the USB connection to the computer (meaning that the virtual serial / COM port will disappear). After the processor resets, the bootloader starts, remaining active for about 8 seconds. The bootloader can also be initiated by pressing the reset button on the Leonardo. Note that when the board first powers up, it will jump straight to the user sketch, if present, rather than initiating the bootloader.

Because of the way the Leonardo handles reset it’s best to let the Arduino software try to initiate the reset before uploading, especially if you are in the habit of pressing the reset button before uploading on other boards. If the software can’t reset the board you can always start the bootloader by pressing the reset button on the board.

USB Overcurrent Protection
The Leonardo has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer’s USB ports from shorts and overcurrent. Although most computers provide their own internal protection, the fuse provides an extra layer of protection. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB port, the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed.
Physical Characteristics
The maximum length and width of the Leonardo PCB are 2.7 and 2.1 inches respectively, with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond the former dimension. Four screw holes allow the board to be attached to a surface or case. Note that the distance between digital pins 7 and 8 is 160 mil (0.16″), not an even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the other pins.

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